Introduction To Boring Machine
Although the handicraft industry of the factory is relatively backward, it has trained and created many craftsmen. Although they are not experts who specialize in making machines, they can make all kinds of hand tools, such as knives, saws, etc. Needles, drills, cones, mills, shafts, sleeves, gears, bed frames, etc., the machine is actually assembled from these parts.
The early designer of boring machines-Da Vinci. Boring machines are called "the mother of machinery". Speaking of boring machines, we must first talk about Leonardo. This legendary character may be the designer of a boring machine that was used for metal processing. The boring machine he designed is powered by water or foot pedals. The boring tool rotates against the workpiece, and the workpiece is fixed on a mobile table driven by a crane. In 1540, another painter drew a picture of "Pyrotechnics" with the same picture of a boring machine. The boring machine at that time was specially used for finishing hollow castings.
The first boring machine for cannon barrel processing (Wilkinson, 1775). In the 17th century, due to military needs, the artillery manufacturing industry developed rapidly. How to make a cannon barrel has become a major problem that people urgently need to solve. The world's first real boring machine was invented by Wilkinson in 1775. In fact, to be precise, Wilkinson's boring machine is a drilling machine that can precisely process cannons. It is a hollow cylindrical boring bar with both ends mounted on bearings.
Wilkinson was born in the United States in 1728. When he was 20 years old, he moved to Staffordshire and built the first iron furnace in Bilston. Therefore, people call Wilkinson the "Master Blacksmith of Staffordshire." In 1775, at the age of 47, Wilkinson worked hard in his father's factory and finally produced this new machine that could drill cannon barrels with rare precision. Interestingly, after Wilkinson's death in 1808, he was buried in a cast iron coffin he designed.
The boring machine made an important contribution to Watt's steam engine. If there was no steam engine, then the first wave of industrial revolution would not have occurred. The development and application of the steam engine itself, in addition to the necessary social opportunities, some technical preconditions cannot be ignored, because the parts of the steam engine are far from being as easy as carpenters cutting wood, and some special metal must be made. The shape and the processing precision requirements are high, it is impossible to do without the corresponding technical equipment. For example, in the manufacture of steam engine cylinders and pistons, the precision of the outer diameter required in the piston manufacturing process can be cut from the outside while measuring the size. However, to meet the accuracy requirements of the cylinder inner diameter, it is not easy to achieve it by using general machining methods. .
Smithton was an excellent mechanic in the 18th century. Smithton designed as many as 43 watermills and windmill equipment. When making a steam engine, Smithton felt that the tricky part was processing the cylinder. It is quite difficult to machine the inner circle of a large cylinder into a circle. For this reason, Smithton produced a special machine tool for cutting the inner circle of cylinders at the Karen Iron Works. This kind of boring machine driven by a water truck is equipped with a tool at the front end of its long axis. This tool can be rotated in the cylinder to process its inner circle. Since the tool is installed at the front end of the long shaft, problems such as shaft deflection will occur. Therefore, it is very difficult to machine a truly circular cylinder. For this reason, Smithton had to change the position of the cylinder many times for processing.
For this problem, the boring machine invented by Wilkinson in 1774 played a big role. This type of boring machine uses a water wheel to rotate the material cylinder and advance the fixed tool at the center. Due to the relative movement between the tool and the material, the material is bored with a highly accurate cylindrical hole. At that time, a cylinder with a diameter of 72 inches was made with a boring machine, and the error did not exceed the thickness of a sixpence coin. Measured by modern technology, this is a big error, but under the conditions at that time, it is not easy to reach this level.
However, Wilkinson's invention did not apply for patent protection, and people copied it and installed it. In 1802, Watt also talked about Wilkinson’s invention in his book, and copied it in his Soho Iron Works. Later, Watt also used Wilkinson's magical machine when manufacturing the cylinders and pistons of the steam engine. It turns out that for the piston, it is possible to measure the size while cutting at the same time, but for the cylinder, it is not so simple, and a boring machine must be used. At that time, Watt used a water wheel to rotate a metal cylinder, and the tool fixed in the center was pushed forward to cut the inside of the cylinder. As a result, the error of a cylinder with a diameter of 75 inches was less than the thickness of a coin. It is very advanced.
Worktable lifting boring machine was born (Hutton, 1885). In the following decades, people made many improvements to Wilkinson's boring machine. In 1885, Hutton of the United Kingdom manufactured a table lift boring machine, which has become the prototype of modern boring machines.