1) The "bow lathe" of ancient pulleys and bow rods.
As early as the ancient Egyptian era, people had invented the technique of turning wood with a tool while rotating the wood around its central axis. In the beginning, people used two standing logs as supports to set up the wood to be turned, use the elasticity of the branches to roll the rope onto the wood, pull the rope by hand or pedal to turn the wood, and hold a knife for cutting.
This ancient method has gradually evolved and developed into a rope that is wound two or three times on a pulley. The rope is placed on an elastic rod bent into a bow, and the bow is pushed back and forth to rotate the processed object for turning. This is the "bow lathe".
2) Medieval crankshaft and flywheel drive "pedal lathe".
In the Middle Ages, someone designed a "pedal lathe" that used a pedal to rotate the crankshaft and drive the flywheel, and then to the main shaft to rotate it. In the middle of the 16th century, a French designer named Besson designed a lathe for turning screws that use a screw rod to slide the tool. Unfortunately, this type of lathe was not popularized.
3) Bedside boxes and chucks were born in the 18th century
In the 18th century, someone designed a rotary crankshaft with pedals and connecting rods, which can store the rotational kinetic energy on a lathe on the flywheel, and developed from directly rotating the workpiece to a rotating headbox. The headbox is a The chuck used to hold the workpiece.
4) British Mozley invented the tool rest lathe (1797)
In the story of the invention of the lathe, it was an Englishman named Mozley who was eye-catching because he invented the epoch-making tool post lathe in 1797, which had a precision lead screw and interchangeable gears. .
Various special lathes were born to improve the degree of mechanization and automation. In 1845, Fitch of the United States invented the turret lathe. In 1848, the back wheel lathe appeared in the United States. In 1873, Spencer of the United States made a single-spindle automatic lathe, and soon he made a three-spindle automatic lathe. At the beginning of the 20th century, a lathe with a gearbox driven by a separate motor appeared. Due to the invention of high-speed tool steel and the application of electric motors, lathes have been continuously improved and finally reached the modern level of high speed and high precision.
After the First World War, various high-efficiency automatic lathes and specialized lathes developed rapidly due to the needs of munitions, automobiles and other machinery industries. In order to improve the productivity of small batches of workpieces, lathes with hydraulic profiling devices were promoted in the late 1940s. At the same time, multi-tool lathes were also developed. In the mid-1950s, program-controlled lathes with punched cards, latch plates and dials were developed. Numerical control technology began to be used in lathes in the 1960s and developed rapidly after the 1970s.
Classification of lathes Lathes are divided into multiple types according to their uses and functions.
Ordinary lathe has a wide range of processing objects, and the adjustment range of spindle speed and feed is large, and it can process the inner and outer surfaces, end faces, and inner and outer threads of the workpiece. This kind of lathe is mainly operated manually by workers, with low production efficiency, and is suitable for single-piece, small-batch production and repair workshops.
Turret lathes and rotary lathes have turret tool holders or return wheel tool holders that can hold multiple tools. Workers can use different tools to complete a variety of processes in one clamping of the workpiece, and are suitable for mass production.
The automatic lathe can automatically complete the multi-process processing of small and medium-sized workpieces according to a certain program, and can automatically load and unload materials, and repeatedly process a batch of the same workpiece, which is suitable for mass production.
Multi-tool semi-automatic lathes are classified into single-axis, multi-axis, horizontal and vertical. The single-axis horizontal layout is similar to that of ordinary lathes, but the two sets of tool holders are installed on the front and back or up and down of the main shaft, and are used to process disks, rings and shafts. The productivity is 3 to 5 times higher than that of ordinary lathes.
The profiling lathe can imitate the shape and size of the model or sample, and automatically complete the processing cycle of the workpiece. It is suitable for small batch and batch production of more complicated workpieces. The productivity is 10-15 times higher than that of ordinary lathes. There are multi-tool holders, multi-axis, chuck, vertical and other types.
The main shaft of the vertical lathe is perpendicular to the horizontal plane, the workpiece is clamped on the horizontal rotary table, and the tool post moves on the beam or column. It is suitable for processing large and heavy workpieces that are difficult to install on ordinary lathes. They are generally divided into two categories: single column and double column.
While turning, the tool post periodically reciprocates in the radial direction, which is used for forming tooth surfaces of forklift milling cutters and hobs. Usually with a relief grinding attachment, a small grinding wheel driven by a separate electric motor relieving the tooth surface.
Specialized lathes are lathes used to process specific surfaces of certain types of workpieces, such as crankshaft lathes, camshaft lathes, wheel lathes, axle lathes, roll lathes, and ingot lathes.
The combined lathe is mainly used for turning processing, but after adding some special parts and accessories, it can also perform boring, milling, drilling, inserting, grinding and other processing. It has the characteristics of "one machine with multiple functions" and is suitable for engineering vehicles, ships or mobile Repair work at the repair station.